スターリン。 食い違う証言…なぜ「スターリン」は見殺しにされたのか? <ソビエト連邦最高指導者の最期>


😗 characterised him as "one of the most powerful figures in. According to Stalin biographer , de-kulakisation was "the first mass terror applied by Stalin in his own country. In the wake of Lenin's death, various protagonists emerged in the struggle to become his successor: alongside Stalin was Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, , and. He had few material demands and lived plainly, with simple and inexpensive clothing and furniture; his interest was in power rather than wealth. , British, and French, with Berlin itself—located within the Soviet area—also subdivided thusly. The 1931 and 1932 harvests had been poor ones because of weather conditions and had followed several years in which lower productivity had resulted in a gradual decline in output. これらの 一連の事件は、 個人崇拝と個人独裁、 大国主義とゆがめられた国際主義、 権威主義と教条主義など 「スターリン主義」に特有のあやまりが、ソ連一国にとどまるものでなく、世界の全共産主義運動と社会主義的建設のなかにすでにふかく定着したものであることを実証した。 In early 1928 Stalin travelled to , where he alleged that kulaks were hoarding their grain and ordered that the kulaks be arrested and their grain confiscated, with Stalin bringing much of the area's grain back to Moscow with him in February. スターリン その秘められた生涯 訳 講談社学術文庫, 1989. According to Ellman, although the 1946 drought was severe, government mismanagement of its grain reserves largely accounted for the population losses. Although not so publicly well known as Lenin or Trotsky, Stalin's importance among the Bolsheviks grew. The Journal of Korean Studies. They arrived in in February 1917, where a medical examiner ruled Stalin unfit for military service because of his crippled arm. In early 1908, he travelled to the Swiss city of to meet with Lenin and the prominent Russian Marxist , although the latter exasperated him.。

Europe-Asia Studies 51 8 : 1479—1483. We have fallen behind the advanced countries by fifty to a hundred years. The Soviets further demanded parts of eastern Finland, but the Finnish government refused. Hiroaki Kuromiya, The Voices of the Dead:Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Montefiore noted that Stalin's favoured types were "young, malleable teenagers or buxom peasant women", who would be supportive and unchallenging toward him. In 1944 the German armies were pushed out of the Baltic states with the exception of the , which were then re-annexed into the Soviet Union. There, he emphasised what he regarded as leadership qualities necessary in the future and highlighted the weaknesses of various potential successors, particularly Molotov and Mikoyan. The Soviet Union experienced a ; between five and seven million people died. Volkogonov believed that Stalin's Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education in religious institutions. 」 このように、ひどい虐待を受けてきたスターリンでしたが、 スターリンにとって、さらに不幸だったのは この父親だけでは無く、母親までもが スターリンを虐待した、という事でした。 "Stalin and the Comintern during the 'Third Period', 1928-33". Stalin thought it necessary because — unlike Lenin — he was unconvinced that Europe was on the verge of. In the , the city's leadership was purged amid accusations of treachery; executions of many of the accused took place in 1950. さらにソ連崩壊後、ロシア連邦国立文書館 GARF は1953年に NKVD(内務人民委員部:ソ連の秘密警察統括部門)の書記局が作成した 大粛清に関する統計報告書を公開した。


♥ スターリン(Joseph Stalin)の名言・格言・言葉 一覧 A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic. Widely considered to be one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive within the international Marxist—Leninist movement, which revered him as a champion of the working class and. New mines were opened, new cities like constructed, and work on the began. In mid-1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with Trotsky's supporters to form the against Stalin; in October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's command. The Soviet victory there marked a major turning point in the war; in commemoration, Stalin declared himself. In April 1942, Stalin overrode Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held in eastern Ukraine. The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin threatening to resign in October and then December 1926 and again in December 1927. Stalin had at least two illegitimate children, although he never recognised them as being his. 表 1、コンクェストによる「スターリニズムの犠牲」の推計 A. 1937~ 38年の大テロル 1937年 1月までにすでに監獄・収容所にいた者 約 500万 1937年 1月~ 38年 12月の逮捕 約 700万 計約 1200万 うち,処刑された者 約 100万 収容所で死んだ者 約 200万 計約 300万 1938年末の被拘禁者 約 900万 うち,監獄に 約 100万 収容所に 約 800万 B.死亡者の総計 1936~ 50年の間に収容所で死んだ者 約 1200万 処刑 約 100万 1936年以前集団化関係 約 350万 1936年以前収容所に送られ、後に死んだ者 約 350万 計約 2000万 出典: RobertConquest,The Great Terror, London: Macmillan,1968, PP. By that year — according to the historian — Stalin had established himself as "Georgia's leading Bolshevik". After the civil war, workers' strikes and peasant uprisings broke out across Russia, largely in opposition to Sovnarkom's food requisitioning project; as an antidote, Lenin introduced market-oriented reforms: the NEP. Trotsky claimed that Stalin sabotaged the campaign by disobeying troop transfer orders. 宮本顕治は、 総括・公表を要求する党中央批判党員たちにたいし、 「うしろ向きの態度」 とか 「自由主義的いきすぎだ」 とか 「打撃主義的あやまり」「清算主義の傾向」とかの 官僚主義的常套語で、水をかけ、 武装闘争総括を 押しつぶす先頭に立った P.194。 His parents, and , were ethnically , and Stalin grew up speaking the. Besarion became an alcoholic and drunkenly beat his wife and son. In April, Stalin came third in the Bolshevik elections for the party's Central Committee; Lenin came first and Zinoviev came second. Nadezdha suspected that this was the case, and committed suicide in 1932. There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the. " They had a son, , who often frustrated and annoyed Stalin. and USSR as the dominant world powers. Born to a poor family in in the now , Stalin attended the before eventually joining the Marxist. When the broke out in July 1936, the Soviets sent 648 aircraft and 407 tanks to the left-wing ; these were accompanied by 3,000 Soviet troops and 42,000 members of the set up by the Communist International. "On the Origin and Significance of the Name "Stalin "". Stalin was in the city when the took place; uprisings broke out in Petrograd — as Saint Petersburg had been renamed — and Tsar Nicholas II abdicated to escape being violently overthrown. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 性格 [ ] スターリンは複雑な精神の持ち主であり 、強い自制心 と抜きんでた記憶力 を有し、また努力家で 、学ぶことに対して貪欲だった と評されている。

The Soviets sought to forestall dissent in these new East European territories with mass repressions. Stalin was now the party's supreme leader, although he was not the , a task he entrusted to his key ally. Stalin: New Biography of a Dictator. According to the historian , Stalin "filled an important role [in the October Revolution]... In September 1888, Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School, a place secured by Charkviani. His speeches and articles reflected his vision of the Soviet Union rising to unparalleled heights of human development, creating a "". He read about, and admired, two Tsars in particular: and. 435, 438, 574; , p. The German pushed deep into Soviet territory; soon, Ukraine, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states were under German occupation, and ; and Soviet refugees were flooding into Moscow and surrounding cities. 死去 [ ] 詳細は「」を参照 、、、、との徹夜の夕食の後、スターリンは寝室での発作で倒れた。 In the process of defeating Germany and its allies, the Soviets and established throughout Central and Eastern Europe, , and. He was a voracious reader, with a library of over 20,000 books. 1、・宮本顕治の対応 党内問題としての 志田問題や 神山問題と併行して、 一九五六、五七年には、国際共産主義運動のうえにみぞうの大事件が続出し、それらが党に根底からの大衝動をあたえた。


🌏 By 1907, he grew his hair long and often wore a beard; for clothing, he often wore a traditional Georgian or a red satin shirt with a grey coat and black fedora. as a senior Bolshevik, member of the party's Central Committee, and editor of its main newspaper"; the historian similarly noted that Stalin had been "in the thick of events" in the build-up to the coup. In 1946, the state published Stalin's Collected Works. A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced. " Marxist—Leninist activists from the opposition laying wreaths at Stalin's Moscow grave in 2009 Amid the social and economic turmoil of the post-Soviet period, many Russians viewed Stalin as having overseen an era of order, predictability, and pride. Demographic consequence of Holodomor of 1933 in Ukraine. レーニン・スターリン中国論 解放社編集部編 ,,訳 五月書房, 1951. To appear taller, he wore stacked shoes, and stood on a small platform during parades. There he led the imprisoned Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups, and ordered the killing of suspected informants. Political ideology A mourning parade in honor of Stalin in , East Germany Stalin claimed to have embraced Marxism at the age of fifteen, and it served as the guiding philosophy throughout his adult life; according to Kotkin, Stalin held "zealous Marxist convictions", while Montefiore suggested that Marxism held a "quasi-religious" value for Stalin. He formed a , which he headed as Supreme Commander, as well as a military Supreme Command , with as its Chief of Staff. He also initiated "national operations", the of non-Soviet ethnic groups—among them Poles, Germans, Latvians, Finns, Greeks, Koreans, and Chinese—through internal or external exile. Socialist revolutionaries accused Stalin's talk of and national self-determination as a front for Sovnarkom's centralising and policies. Michael Ellman, "," Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 2000 :603—30. Soviet soldiers in , 4 July 1944 In 1944, the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany, including , a massive offensive in the against the German Army Group Centre. 5 million while scholar Steven Rosefielde gives a number of 8. He took as his secretary and at some point married her, although the wedding date is unknown. Eastern Bloc The until 1989 After the war, Stalin sought to retain Soviet dominance across Eastern Europe while expanding its influence in Asia. His personal writings from the period were — according to Khlevniuk — "unusually convoluted and incoherent", filled with claims about enemies encircling him. After the demonstration was suppressed, the Provisional Government initiated a crackdown on the Bolsheviks, raiding Pravda. In May 1933, he released from prison many convicted of minor offenses, ordering the security services not to enact further mass arrests and deportations. During the war, Stalin was more tolerant of the , allowing it to resume some of its activities and meeting with in September 1943. "North Korea's Alliances and the Unfinished Korean War". According to Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death". It was aimed for economic within the Eastern Bloc. メドベージェフによる 「スターリニズムの犠牲」の推計 人民の敵とのレッテルを張り、 不服従の者を大量に虐殺・血の粛清 先ず、 農村の富農層(クラーク)を 撲滅 1929年、スターリンは、第1次五か年計画を発動した。

In November 1907, his wife died of , and he left his son with her family in Tiflis. He grew increasingly concerned that senior political and military figures might try to oust him; he prevented any of them from becoming powerful enough to rival him and had their apartments bugged with listening devices. New York:Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1967. 極寒期における日本人捕虜の石炭採掘作業 極寒期における日本人捕虜の鉄道基礎掘削作業 極寒期における日本人捕虜の枕木運搬作業 極寒期における日本人捕虜の鉄道敷設作業 劣悪極まる作業環境のため、炭塵、鉱塵で多くの日本人捕虜が 【シベリア珪肺】に苦しんだ。


🐾 He escaped to Saint Petersburg, where he was arrested in September 1911 and sentenced to a further three-year exile in Vologda. A compromise was reached, in which the federation would be renamed the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" USSR. Various biographers have described him as a , an , or accused him of practicing. による短期間のカフカース占領後、山岳民族との全住民 — 計100万人以上もの人々 — が、自分たちの財産没収の通知も機会も得ることなく追放された。

日本国憲法とは何か 八木秀次 PHP研究所 2003年 p169• ] that does not mean that the event itself cannot be judged as genocide. He oversaw proliferation of schools, newspapers, and libraries, as well as advancement of literacy and. In 1951, he initiated the , a purge of the Georgian branch of the Communist Party which resulted in over 11,000 deportations. Svetlana and Vasily were called to the dacha on 2 March; the latter was drunk and angrily shouted at the doctors, resulting in him being sent home. 「コニシ」とは、の教授であった 1861 - 1940 のことで、留学中にモスクワの下宿で若き日のスターリンと部屋が隣であり、親交を結んでいた。 In the hamlet, Stalin had a relationship with Lidia Pereprygia, who was fourteen at the time but within the legal in Tsarist Russia. Stalin had called for the to ally themselves with KMT nationalists, viewing a Communist-Kuomintang alliance as the best bulwark against Japanese imperial expansionism. Although he got into many fights, Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing , and singing as a choirboy. It was partly responsible for a substantial rise in production during the 1930s. The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during the war. 表2、1930年代末の収容所人口に関するさまざまな見積もり 推定の出所 1937年 1938年 1939年 1940年 ダリン,ニコラエフスキー 500~ 600万 960万 1000万 シュワルツ 1350万 ティマシェフ 200万 200万 200万 アフトルハノフ 1150万 ヤスニー 350万 アメリカ国務省 200~ 2000万 ワイルズ 162万 222万 432万 800万 バーグソン,イーソン 350万 スヴャニェヴィチ 690万 コンクェスト 760万 900万 ソルジェニツィン、 1) 1000~ 1200万 ローズフィールド、 2) 900万 1060万 1040万 1120万 1) 1942~ 45年の数値。



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