北部 同盟。 Wikizero


😀 With both nations seeking to increase or maintain their regional power through opposing factions on the ground, the conflict in Afghanistan has increasingly been seen by observers as a proxy-war between these powers. The movement is officially alive for the first time since 2001, led by Ahmad Massoud, son of its ex-leader, Ahmad Shah Massoud. Dostum has said the reason the attack was successful was due to 1500 Pakistani commandos taking part and that the Pakistani air force also gave support. Northern Alliance: Fighting for a Free Afghanistan. With the fall of Kabul to anti-Taliban forces in November 2001, ISI forces worked with and helped Taliban militias who were in full retreat. ] Shells and rockets fell everywhere. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. Some of his followers wanted to take to the streets but Abdullah called for calm. The prisoners were killed while being transferred from to. From southern Afghanistan: , and ;• Had it not been for the United Front, the U. It mobilized about 10,000 people in an anti-Taliban demonstration in the capital Kabul in May 2011. And I think that can only be assured by democracy based on consensus. UN officials stated that there had been "15 massacres" between 1996 and 2001. Initially it included mostly but by 2000, leaders of other ethnic groups had joined the Northern Alliance. Also, the quality of life of the Afghan population was heavily dependent on the specific leader that was directly controlling the area in which they lived. In November 1994 they took control of the southern city of and subsequently expanded their control into several provinces in southern and central Afghanistan not under the central government's control. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, United Front troops ousted the Taliban from power in Kabul with American air support in , using intelligence reports offered by Iran during the meetings at the United Nations Headquarters. 2021 resurgence [ ] Main article: Following a complete takeover of Afghanistan by the Taliban in 2021, a force, led by Ahmad Massoud, son of late Afghan politician Ahmad Shah Massoud, and Vice President Amrullah Saleh started gathering strength in Panjshir Valley. They received support from , , , , , and , while the Taliban were extensively backed by the and. ] With the exception of 's , all of the parties [... Friends of the Northern Alliance. ] to subordinate their own nationalist objectives in order to help Pakistan realize its regional ambitions. External links [ ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to. February 2018 The United Front was formed in late 1996 against the Taliban government by opposition factions. Because of the chaos, some leaders increasingly had only nominal control over their sub- commanders. In 2010, Afghan President Karzai decided that the only way to end the Taliban insurgency is to call for peace. By 2006, however, with the support of Pakistan, a Taliban insurgency was increasingly gaining strength. Karzai easily won the 2004 Presidential election with 55. Dostum belonged to those commanders making their own, often draconian, laws. He explained in one interview: The Taliban say: "Come and accept the post of prime minister and be with us", and they would keep the highest office in the country, the presidentship. Ahmad Shah Massoud remained the only major anti-Taliban leader inside the country who was able to defend vast parts of his territory against the Pakistani Army, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, not once leaving Afghanistan except for diplomatic purposes. On this visit to Europe he also warned that his intelligence had gathered information about a large-scale attack on U. He stated that the Taliban and had introduced "a very wrong perception of " and that without the support of Pakistan and Bin Laden the Taliban would not be able to sustain their military campaign for up to a year. was a counter-terrorism expert and the Assistant Director of the FBI until late 2001. Notable politicians and diplomats of the United Front included , and. The funeral, although taking place in a rather rural area, was attended by hundreds of thousands of mourning people. , referring to the Taliban offensive, wrote in a 1995 report: This is the first time in several months that Kabul civilians have become the targets of rocket attacks and shelling aimed at residential areas in the city. According to Human Rights Watch in 1997, some 3,000 captured Taliban soldiers were summarily executed in and around Mazar-i Sharif by Dostum's forces under the command of. Atul Aneja, "High Stakes for India" The Hindu, October 8th 2001. The United Front was originally assembled by key leaders of the , particularly and former Defense Minister. Human Rights Watch asked to actively discourage and refuse support in any way to any group or coalition that includes commanders with a record of serious violations of international humanitarian law standards, specifically naming ; , a senior commander of the ; , leader of the erstwhile ; and , a former senior commander. 詳細は「」を参照 指導者 セイエド・フセイン・アンワリ () アシフ・モーセニ () アフマド・マスード () アムルッラー・サーレハ () 活動地域 関連勢力• Human Rights Watch has released documents alleging widespread crimes targeted against the civilian population. Despite fears of a return to the chaos similar to that of the , all the Afghan leaders met in Germany to create a new government. Many civilians fled to the area of. The Northern Alliance fought a defensive war against the government. However, Pakistani intelligence agencies maintained some degree of cooperation with the Taliban elements fleeing the fighting. The opposition, by then splintered into several parties, warned that Karzai's appeasement policy could come at the cost of Afghanistan's political and economic development, and the progress made in areas such as education and women's rights. The assistance provided by India was extensive, including uniforms, ordnance, mortars, small armaments, refurbished Kalashnikovs, combat and winter clothes, as well as funds. Friends of the Northern Alliance. Massoud also maintained a private residence in ,. The Taliban seized Kabul on September 27, 1996, and established the. The assassination of Massoud is considered to have a strong connection to the two days later, which killed nearly 3,000 people and which appeared to be the terrorist attack that Massoud had warned against in his speech to the European Parliament several months earlier. From western Afghanistan: Jamiat-e Islami , , and ;• Notably, Mohammed Fahim became the Vice President and Defense Minister, became the Minister of Education and Security Advisor and became the Foreign Minister. Some things have happened in Afghanistan [referring to the assassination of Massoud]. Sharp contrasts could also be witnessed regarding life and structures in those areas. Most of the country's senior military personnel are former members of the UIF, including.。 Military commanders of the United Front were either independent or belonged to one of the following political parties:• Former head of the NDS , , created a new movement, , with support among the youth. ] were ostensibly unified under this government in April 1992. Due to the sudden initiation of the war, working government departments, police units or a system of justice and accountability for the newly created Islamic State of Afghanistan did not have time to form. As the opposition leaders were excluded from secret talks with the Taliban by NATO and the Karzai administration and Karzai's political rhetoric was increasingly adjusted to Taliban demands, United Front leaders, in late 2011, regrouped to oppose a return of the Taliban to Afghanistan. Amidst the , former Northern Alliance leaders and other anti-Taliban figures have regrouped as the. In the area of Massoud women and girls were allowed to work and to go to school, and in at least two known instances Massoud personally intervened against cases of forced marriage. Badakshan was the home region of Rabbani. In early 2001 the United Front employed a new strategy of local military pressure and global political appeals. the Pakistani military's Inter-services Intelligence Directorate IsI provided assistance to the taliban regime, to include its military and al Qaeda—related terrorist training camps• Massoud created institutions which were structured into several committees: political, health, education and economic. They also said, that "[t]hese have been highly systematic and they all lead back to the [Taliban] Ministry of Defense or to Mullah Omar himself". the Sunni Pashtun-dominated , led by• Some members of the alliance are now part of the which is led by Rabbani and includes some former leaders of the UIF such as Yunus Qanuni, Mohammed Fahim, and Abdul Rashid Dostum. A publication by the describes: [O]utside forces saw instability in Afghanistan as an opportunity to press their own security and political agendas. This province is still free from Taliban. The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region 2002 1st ed. The killings followed Malik's withdrawal from a brief alliance with the Taliban and the capture of the Taliban forces who were trapped in the city. From central Afghanistan: Hezb-e Wahdat , , , , Hezb-e Wahdat and. Unsourced material may be challenged and. Pakistani President — then as Chief of Army Staff — was responsible for sending thousands of Pakistanis to fight alongside the Taliban and Bin Laden against the forces of Ahmad Shah Massoud. Under Massoud's control, in , north of Panjshir, was the group's headquarters until September 5, 2000, when the city was taken by the Taliban and led to its base moving to. At that point and drastically increased their support to the Taliban. Creation of the United Front [ ] This section does not any. Massoud wanted to convince the Taliban to join a political process leading towards democratic elections in a foreseeable future. The Taliban started shelling Kabul in early 1995 but were defeated by forces of the Islamic State government under. , another of Ahmad Shah Massoud's close friends, became ambassador to India and subsequently to Turkey, while the younger brother of Massoud, Ahmad Wali Massoud, serves as ambassador to the United Kingdom. Women also did not have to wear the Afghan burqa. I sense a shift, and I think things are going to happen. — Anonymous Operations AnonOpsSE 但し、アフマド・マスード氏は「我々の戦力や兵站は十分とは言えないので西側諸国が早急に我々への支援方法を見つけなければ抵抗力が枯渇することになる」と語り「あなた方だけが私達の希望だ」と支援を呼びかけている。

At the same time he was very wary not to revive the failed Kabul government of the early 1990s. Resentment was increasingly gathering against Taliban rule from the bottom of Afghan society including the Pashtun areas. From eastern Afghanistan: , Eastern Shura , , , and ;• The accords created the and appointed an for a transitional period to be followed by general elections. After longstanding battles especially for the northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif, and his forces alongside allied forces were defeated by the Taliban and their allies in 1998. There is only the assistance given by Pakistan, Osama bin Laden and other extremist groups that keep the Taliban on their feet. Some parts of Badakshan were under his influence while others were controlled by Burhanuddin Rabbani. History [ ] Background [ ] Afghanistan after the Soviet retreat. They are bringing all Anti-Taliban commanders together in Panjshir. ] Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami, for its part, refused to recognize the government for most of the period discussed in this report and launched attacks against government forces and generally. In late 1994, most of the militia factions which had been fighting in the battle for control of Kabul were defeated militarily by forces of the Islamic State's. The United National Front has positioned itself as a "loyal" opposition to Hamid Karzai. Saudi Arabia supported the and his faction. Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival 2006 1st ed. With the Taliban forced from control of the country, the Northern Alliance was dissolved as members and parties supported the new , with some members later becoming part of the. February 2018 and , former enemies, created the Northern Alliance against the Taliban that were preparing offensives against the remaining areas under the control of Massoud and those under the control of Dostum. The existence and strength of the has significantly reduced the threat of the former UIF elements attempting to use military action against the new NATO-backed Afghan government. the Sunni Tajik-dominated and , led by and• This section does not any. Massoud tried to initiate a nationwide with the goal of national and , also inviting the to join the process but they refused as they opposed a democratic system. It was there where Massoud would meet international diplomatic staff who supported the Northern Alliance. Since early 1999, was the only main leader able to defend his territory against the Taliban, and as such remained as the main political and military leader of the United Front recognized by members of all the different ethnic groups. Unsourced material may be challenged and. The difference between us concerns mainly our way of thinking about the very principles of the society and the state. Atrocities were committed by individuals of the different armed factions while Kabul descended into lawlessness and chaos as described in reports by Human Rights Watch and the Afghanistan Justice Project. Area of Ahmad Shah Massoud [ ] controlled the Panjshir area, some other parts of Parwan and Thakhar province. In total, estimates range up to one million people fleeing the Taliban. ] Had it not been for the 's logistic support and supply of a large number of rockets, Hekmatyar's forces would not have been able to target and destroy half of Kabul. Most foreign observers expected this dominance to continue and for Fahim or Qanuni to be selected as Karzai's Vice President in the 2004 elections. ] could not possibly expect the new Islamic government leaders [... According to Human Rights Watch, Iran was backing the forces of in order to "maximize Wahdat's military power and influence". Area of Abdul Rashid Dostum [ ] Northern Alliance troops under General Dostum's command in , December 2001 Until the conquest of Balkh by the Taliban in 1998, controlled the following provinces: Samangan, Balkh, Jowzjan, Faryab, and Baghlan provinces. Human Rights Watch writes: Rare ceasefires, usually negotiated by representatives of , or [the interim government], or officials from the ICRC , commonly collapsed within days. After the September 2001 attacks in the United States, U. A 1998 document by the confirms that "20—40 percent of [regular] Taliban soldiers are returned Afghans from Pakistani refugee camps". Al Qaeda's so-called was also responsible for mass-killings of Afghan civilians. In addition, and , as competitors for regional , supported Afghan militias hostile towards each other. The "creeping invasion" proved unable to defeat the severely outnumbered anti-Taliban forces. Flags flown by the United Islamic Front Leaders figurehead leader Dates of operation September 1996 — December 2001 16 August 2021 — present as Headquarters , Afghanistan until September 2000 , Afghanistan 2000-November 2001 , , Afghanistan from 16 August 2021 Active regions Anti- Allies• Bin Laden sent Arab and Central Asian Al-Qaeda militants to join the fight against the United Front among them his. Massoud's ex-commander Bismillah Khan Mohammadi was chief-of-staff of the Afghan National Army, then as Minister of the Interior followed by Minister of Defense. He also stated: The Taliban are not a force to be considered invincible. Some of the military strength of the UIF has now been absorbed into the , while many of the remaining soldiers were disarmed through a nationwide program. Killing the Cranes: A Reporter's Journey Through Three Decades of War in Afghanistan August 3, 2011 ed. was chosen to lead the country and most key positions were given to Tajik members of the Northern Alliance. Coll, Ghost Wars New York: Penguin, 2005 , 14. A part of the United Front military factions, such as or , however, did not fall under the direct control of Massoud but remained under their respective regional or ethnic leaders. The two main political candidates in the both worked for the United Front:• Meanwhile, southern Afghanistan was under the control of local leaders not affiliated with the central government in Kabul. While it was Massoud's stated conviction that men and women are equal and should enjoy the same rights, he also had to deal with Afghan traditions which he said would need a generation or more to overcome. I don't like the way things are lining up in Afghanistan. One of Massoud's close intelligence agents, Amrullah Saleh, became director of the National Directorate of Security NDS in 2004 but had to resign in 2010. air raids followed by ground troops of the United Front ousted the Taliban from power in Kabul. In November and December 2001 the United Front gained control of much of the country and played a crucial role in establishing the post-Taliban interim government of Hamid Karzai in late 2001. War on Terror, troops loyal to Dostum also returned to combat. The United Front was influential in the of from 2001 until 2004. He was buried in his home village of in the. While Pakistan has always favored Afghanistan's major ethnic group, the Pashtun, India saw an opportunity for increasing its regional power by jumping on board with the support of the Northern Alliance in the early days of the war. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 February 23, 2004 ed. Taliban massacres [ ] According to a 55-page report by the , the Taliban, while trying to consolidate control over northern and western Afghanistan, committed systematic against civilians. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader March 1, 2009 ed. This became known as the In 2009, Dostum denied the accusations. In early 2001 Ahmad Shah Massoud addressed the in asking the to provide help to the people of Afghanistan. In November 2001, Taliban, Al-Qaeda combatants and ISI operatives were safely evacuated from Kunduz on cargo aircraft to bases in and in Pakistan's in what has been dubbed the. the Shia Hazara-dominated , led by and• The report by the quotes eyewitnesses in many villages describing Arab fighters "carrying long knives used for slitting throats and skinning people". Many analysts like describe the Taliban as developing into a force for Pakistan's regional interests. The ISI helped with the construction of training camps for both the Taliban and. the Shia Tajik and Hazara-dominated , led by and Military commanders and subcommanders of the United Front included• Massoud decided on the main political line and the general military strategy of the alliance. Human rights issues 1996—2001 [ ] The human rights situation during combat was heavily dependent on the specific commander and his troops. After the fall of the Soviet-backed communist government in 1992, the Afghan political parties agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement. With a halt to that assistance, it is extremely difficult to survive. According to : The sovereignty of Afghanistan was vested formally in the , an entity created in April 1992, after the fall of the -backed Najibullah government. The Taliban repeatedly offered Massoud money and a position of power to make him stop his resistance. — Sudhir Chaudhary sudhirchaudhary BREAKING: Flag of the Northern Alliance has been raised in Panjshir,! Pakistani military interference [ ] Due to the involvement of Indian intelligence RAW in supporting the Northern Alliance, Pakistan looked to neutralise this threat by cultivating the Taliban. Dostum subsequently went into exile. In his opinion that could only be achieved through education. This created a major international issue. Reformation 2011 [ ] Main article: The National Front of Afghanistan, which was created by , Abdul Rashid Dostum and Mohammad Mohaqiq in late 2011 to oppose peace talks with Taliban, is generally considered as a reformation of the military wing of the United Front. Many internally displaced persons found shelter in areas controlled by Ahmad Shah Massoud. On August 1, 1997 the Taliban launched an attack on Sheberghan, the main military base of Abdul Rashid Dostum. In 2001, Massoud and a French journalist described the bitter situation of the displaced people and asked for humanitarian help. According to Human Rights Watch many of the violations of international humanitarian law committed by the United Front forces date from 1996—1998 when Dostum controlled most of the north. They are distanced from the people now. On September 10, 2001, John O'Neill told two of his friends, We're due. Bombardment of the capital came to a halt. Hundreds of thousands of Afghans fled from the Taliban to the areas controlled by Massoud. sanctions because of its military aid to the Taliban". In 2001 alone, according to several international sources, 28,000—30,000 Afghans, who took refuge in Pakistan during Afghan jihad, 14,000—15,000 Afghan Taliban and 2,000—3,000 Al Qaeda militants were fighting against anti-Taliban forces in Afghanistan as a roughly 45,000 strong military force. the Sunni Uzbek and Turkmen-dominated , led by• Of the estimated 28,000 Afghan refugees returned from Pakistan fighting in Afghanistan, 8,000 were militants recruited in filling regular Taliban ranks. Map of the situation in Afghanistan in late 1996; red , green and yellow territories. The role of the Pakistani military has been described by international observers as well as by the anti-Taliban leader Ahmad Shah Massoud as a "creeping invasion". The alliance is primarily comprised of three non-Pashtun ethnic groups — Tajiks, Uzbeks and the Hazaras — and in the past relied on a core of some 15,000 troops to defend its territories against the predominantly Pashtun Taleban. The UN secretary-general implicitly criticized Pakistan for its military support and the Security Council stated it was "deeply distress[ed] over reports of involvement in the fighting, on the Taliban side, of thousands of non-Afghan nationals". Others like claim to be loyal to Hamid Karzai while, however, following their own agenda. However, Karzai instead selected , younger brother of the former United Front leader Ahmad Shah Massoud. In 2000, the UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo against military support to the Taliban, with UN officials explicitly singling out Pakistan. Between November and December 2001, the United Front gained control of most major Afghan cities. The Taliban's early victories in 1994 were followed by a series of defeats that resulted in heavy losses which led analysts to believe the Taliban movement had run its course. 1996-1999 indirect support, 1999-2001 direct support• There should be an Afghanistan where every Afghan finds himself or herself happy. On September 26, 1996, as the Taliban with military support by Pakistan and financial support by Saudi Arabia, prepared for another major offensive against the capital Kabul, Massoud ordered a full retreat from the city. Afghanistan expert concludes in Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival: Pakistan was keen to gear up for a breakthrough in Central Asia. They are weaker than in the past. Legacy [ ] Between 1996 and 2001, the Northern Alliance blocked the Taliban and al-Qaeda from gaining control of the entirety of Afghanistan. concluded in its documentary "Inside the Taliban": "The only thing standing in the way of future Taliban massacres is ". was a close friend of and the foreign minister of the alliance• his father was killed by the Taliban, he subsequently went on a diplomatic mission to gather support for Massoud in Europe and the U. GUTMAN, Roy 2008 : How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed. The situation for different leaders and their troops of the United Front thus shows sharp contrasts. "Document — Afghanistan: further information on fear for safety and new concern: Deliberate and arbitrary killings: Civilians in Kabul". Courts started to work again. Until recently, the alliance's main backers were Iran, Russia and Tajikistan. The same year Russia said that Pakistan was responsible for the military expansion of the Taliban in northern Afghanistan by sending large numbers of Pakistani troops, some of whom had subsequently been taken as prisoners by the anti-Taliban United Front. Former Northern Alliance strongman , Vice President of Afghanistan, remained in an alliance with Hamid Karzai until Fahim's death in 2014. Human Rights Watch wrote in 2000: Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and... He retired from the FBI and was offered the position of director of security at the World Trade Center WTC. December 16, 2001 After the in the United States in 2001, the United Front succeeded in retaking Kabul from the Taliban with air support from US-led forces during. The Islamic State government took steps to restore law and order. In July 2001, several countries including the United States, accused Pakistan of being "in violation of U. Commander Massoud died in a helicopter that was taking him to a hospital. And we're due for something big. In 1998, Iran accused Pakistan of sending its air force to bomb in support of Taliban forces and directly accused Pakistani troops for "war crimes at ". This included , , , , , , and others. From 1996 to 2001 the of and became a state within the Taliban state. 参考: サレー第一副大統領やアフマド・マスード氏が率いる北部同盟が反タリバンを掲げて立ち上がる サレー第一副大統領は今月16日、北部同盟を率いるアフマド・マスード氏と共にカーブル国際空港からMi-17に乗ってパンジシール渓谷に移動した後に「アフガニスタンの憲法に則り自身が正当な暫定大統領だ」と宣言、アフマド・マスード氏も「このような日が来ることを予想して父(侵攻してきたソ連軍を何度も撃退してタリバンとも戦いアフガニスタン国家英雄の称号が贈られたアフマド・シャー・マスード)の時代から集積してきた武器や弾薬があり、我々はタリバンに再び挑む準備が出来ている」と記事を米メディアのThe Washington Postに寄稿してタリバンに対する戦いを開始すると宣言した。 Ahmad Shah Massoud [ ] The only thing standing in the way of future Taliban massacres is. There was a huge humanitarian problem as there was not enough to eat for both the existing population and the internally displaced Afghans. This process became accepted and supported by all international partners of Afghanistan, except by several key figures of the Northern Alliance such as Abdullah Abdullah, Ahmad Zia Massoud, Mohammad Mohaqiq, and others. The United Front included beside the dominantly Tajik forces of Massoud and the Uzbek forces of Dostum, Hazara troops led by and Pashtun forces under the leadership of commanders such as and. From 2002 to 2004 Afghanistan witnessed relative calm. 91 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRashid2000• Conflict between the two militias soon escalated into a full-scale war. We can not accept their conditions of compromise, or else we would have to give up the principles of modern democracy. On September 9, 2001, two Arab , allegedly belonging to Al Qaeda, posing as journalists, detonated a bomb hidden in a video camera while interviewing in the Takhar province of Afghanistan. Sudharshan, V 1 September 2021. would have needed to deploy large number of ground troops, as was done in the. On November 1, 2009, Abdullah, however, quit the because of widespread allegations of election fraud. 北部同盟に加わった主要な組織は、ラッバーニーを首班としらを中心とする イスラム協会 ()、軍閥の 、を中心とする などがある。

反タリバン勢力がパンジシール州に集結 「北部同盟」伝説の戦士の息子が指揮を取り、最後の聖戦へ 映画化決定

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北部同盟 (アフガニスタン)




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